United States Environmental Protection Agency
U.S. EPA, Washington D.C., 20460
United States Consumer Product Safety Commission
U.S. CPSC, Washington D.C., 20207
Are you planning to buy, rent, or renovate a home built before 1978?
Many houses and apartments built before 1978 have paint that contains lead (called lead-based paint). Lead from paint, chips, and dust can pose serious health hazards if not taken care of properly.
By 1996, federal law will require that individuals receive certain information before renting, buying or renovating pre-1978 housing:
LANDLORDS will have to disclose known information on lead-based paint hazards before leases take effect. Leases will include a federal form about lead-based paint.
SELLERS will have to disclose known information on lead-based paint hazards before selling a house. Sales contracts will include a federal form about lead-based paint in the building. Buyers will have up to 10 days to check for lead hazards.
RENOVATORS will have to give you an EPA pamphlet on lead hazards before starting work.
IF YOU WANT MORE INFORMATION on these requirements, call the National Lead Information Clearinghouse at 1-800-424-LEAD.
Lead From Paint, Dust, and Soil Can Be Dangerous If Not Managed Properly
Fact: Lead exposure can harm young children and babies even before they are born.
Fact: Even children that seem healthy can have high levels of lead in their bodies.
Fact: People can get lead in their bodies by breathing or swallowing lead dust, or by eating soil or paint chips with lead in them.
Fact: People have many options for reducing lead hazards. In most cases, lead-based paint that is in good condition is not a hazard.
Fact: Removing lead-based paint improperly can increase that danger to your family.
If you think your home might have lead hazards, read this on-line pamphlet to learn some simple steps to protect your family.
Lead Gets in the Body in Many Ways
People can get lead in their body if they:
- Put their hands or other objects covered with lead dust in their mouths.
- Eat paint chips or soil that contains lead.
- Breathe in lead dust (especially during removations that disturb painted surfaces.)
Lead is even more dangerous to children than adults because:
- Babies and young childrem often put their hands and other objects in their mouths. These objects can have lead dust on them.
- Children's growing bodies absorb more lead.
- Children's brains and nervous systems are more sensitive to the damaging effects of lead.
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If not detected early, children with high levels of lead in their bodies can suffer from:
- Damage to the brain and nervous system
- Behavior and learning problems (such as hyperactivity)
- Slowed growth
- Hearing problems
Lead is also harmful to adults. Adults can suffer from:
- Difficulties during pregnancy
- Other reproductive problems (in both men and women)
- High blood pressure
- Digestive problems
- Nerve disorders
- Memory and concentration problems
- Muscle and joint pain
Checking Your Family for Lead
A simple blood test can detect high levels of lead.
Blood tests are important for:
- Children who are 6 months to 1 year old (6 months if you live in an older home with cracking or peeling paint).
- Family members that you think might have high levels of lead.
If your child is older than 1 year, talk to your doctor about whether the child needs testing.
Your doctor or health center can do blood tests. They are inexpensive and sometimes free. Your doctor will explain what the test results mean. Treatment can range from changes in your diet to medication or a hospital stay.
Where Led-Based Paint Is Found
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Many homes built before 1978 have lead-based paint. The federal government banned lead-based paint from housing in 1978. Some states stopped its use even earlier. Lead can be found:
- In homes in the city, country, or suburbs.
- In apartments, single-family homes, and both private and public housing.
- Inside and outside of the house.
- In soil around a home. (Soil can pick up lead from exterior paint, or other sources such as past use of leaded gas in cars.)
Where Lead Is Likely To Be a Hazard
Lead-based paint that is in good condition is usually not a hazard.
Peeling, chipping, chalking, or cracking lead-based paint is a hazard and needs immediate attention.
Lead-based paint may also be a hazard when found on surfaces that children can chew or that get a lot of wear-and-tear. These areas include:
- Windows and window sills.
- Doors and door frames.
- Stairs, railings, and banisters.
- Porches and fences.
Lead dust can form when lead-based paint is dry scraped, dry sanded, or heated. Dust also forms when painted surfaces bump or rub together. Lead chips and dust can get on surfaces and objects that people touch. Settled lead dust can reenter the air when people vacuum, sweep, or walk through it.
Lead in soil can be a hazard when children play in bare soil or when people bring soil into the house on their shoes. Call your state agency (see below) to find out about soil testing for lead.
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Checking Your Home for Lead Hazards
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You can get your home checked for lead hazards in one of two ways, or both:
- A paint inspection tells you teh lead content of every painted survace in your home. It won't tell you whether the paint is a hazard or how you should deal with it.
- A risk assessment tells you if there are any sources of serious lead exposure (such as peeling paint and lead dust). It also tells you what actions to take to address these hazards.
Have qualified professionals do the work. The federal government is writing standards for inspectors and risk assessors. Some states might already have standards in place. Call your state agency for help with locating qualified professionals in your area (see below).
Trained professionals use a range of methods when checking your home, including:
- Visual inspection of paint condition and location.
- Lab tests of paint samples.
- Surface dust tests.
- A portable x-ray fluorescence machine.
Home test kits for lead are available, but recent studies suggest that they are not always accurate. Consumers should not rely on these tests before doing renovations or to assure safety.
What You Can Do Now To Protect Your Family
If you suspect that hour house has lead hazards, you can take some immediate steps to reduce your family's risk:
- If you rent, notify your landlord of peeling or chipping paint.
- Clean up paint chips immediately.
- Clean floors, window frames, window sills, and other surfaces weekly. Use a mop or sponge with warm water and a general all-purpose cleaner or a cleaner made specifically for lead. REMEMBER: NEVER MIX AMMONIA AND BLEACH PRODUCTS TOGETHER SINCE THEY CAN FORM A DANGEROUS GAS.
- Thoroughly rinse sponges and mop heads after cleaning dirty or dusty areas.
- Wash children's hands often, especially before they eat and before nap time and bed time.
- Keep play areas clean. Wash bottles, pacifiers, toys and stuffed animals regularly.
- Keep children from chewing window sills or other painted surfaces.
- Clean or remove shoes before entering your home to avoid tracking in lead from soil.
- Make sure children eat nutritious, low-fat meals high in iron and calcium, such as spinach and low-fat diary products. Children with good diets absorb less lead.
How To Significantly Reduce Lead Hazards
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In addition to day-to-day cleaning and good nutrition:
- You can temporarily reduce lead hazards by taking actions such as repairing damaged painted surfaces and planting grass to cover soil with high lead levels. These actions (called "interim control") are not permanent solutions and will need ongoing attention.
- To permanently remove lead hazards, you must hire a lead "abatement" contractor. Abatement (or permanent hazard elimination) methods include removing, sealing, or enclosing lead-based paint with special materials. Just painting over the hazard with regular paint is not enough.
Always hire a person with special training for correcting lead problems--someone who knows how to do this work safely and has the proper equipment to clean up thoroughly. If possible, hire a certified lead abatement contractor. Certified contractors will employ qualified workers and follow strict safety rules as set by their state or by the federal government.
Call your state agency (see below) for help with locating qualified contractors in your area and to see if financial assistance is available.
Remodeling or Renovating a Home With Lead-Based Paint
Take precautions before you begin remodeling or renovations that disturb painted surfaces (such as scraping off paint or tearing out walls):
- Have the area tested for lead-based paint.
- Do not use a dry scraper, belt-sander, propane torch, or heat gun to remove lead-based paint. These actions create large amounts of lead dust and fumes. Lead dust can remain in your home long after the work is done.
- Temporarily move your family (especially children and pregnant women) out of the apartment or house until the work is done and the area is properly cleaned. If you can't move your family, at least completely seal off the work area.
- Follow other safety measures to reduce lead hazards. You can find out about other safety measures by calling 1-800-424-LEAD. Ask for the brochure "Reducing Lead Hazards When Remodeling Your Home." This brochure explains what to do before, during, and after removations.
If you ahve already completed renovations or remodeling that could have released lead-based paint or dust, get your young children tested and follow the steps outlined (above) in this e-brochure.
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Other Sources of Lead
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- Drinking water. Your home might have plumbing with lead or lead solder. Call your local health department or water supplier to find out about testing your water. You cannot see, smell or taste lead, and boiling your water will not get rid of lead. If you think your plumbing might have lead in it:
- Use only cold water for drinking and cooking.
- Run water for 15 to 30 seconds before drinking it, especially if you have not used your water for a few hours.
- The job. If you work with lead, you could bring it home on your hands or clothes. Shower and change clothes before coming home. Launder your clothes separately from the rest of your family's.
- Old painted toys and furniture.
- Food and liquids stored in lead crystal or lead-glazed pottery or porcelain.
- Lead smelters or other industries that release lead into the air.
- Hobbies that use lead, such as making pottery or stained glass, or refinishing furniture.
- Folk remedies that contain lead, such as "greta" and "azarcon" used to treat an upset stomach.
For More Information
The National Lead Information Center
Call 1-800-LEAD-FYI to learn how to protect children from lead poisoning.
For other information on lead hazards, call the center's clearinghouse at 1-800424-LEAD. For the hearing impaired, call TDD 1-800-526-5456.
EPA's Safe Drinking Water Hotline
Call 1-800-426-4791 for information about lead in drinking water.
Consumer Product Safety Commission Hotline
To request information on lead in consumer products, or to report an unsafe consumer product or a product-related injury call 1-800-638-2772.
For the hearing impaired, call TDD 1-800-638-8270.
Online Lead Information from EPA
State Health and Environmental Agencies
Some cities and states have their own rules for lead-based paint activities. Check with your state agency to see if state or local laws apply to you. Most state agencies can also provide information on finding a lead abatement firm in your area, and on possible sources of financial aid for reducing lead hazards.
State / Region
Nevada Utah Phone Number
(702) 687-6615 (801) 536-4000
EPA Regional Offices
Region 10 (Idaho, Oregon, Washington, Alaska)
1200 Sixth Avenue
Seattle, WA 98101
Region 9 (Arizona, California, Hawaii, Nevada)
75 Hawthorne Street
San Francisco, CA 94105
Region 8 (Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, Wyoming)
999 18th Street, Suite 500
Denver, CO 80202-2405
CPSC Regional Offices
Western Regional Center
600 Harrison Street
San Francisco, CA 94107
Central Regional Center
230 South Dearborn Street
Chicago, IL 60604-1601
Eastern Regional Center
6 World Trade Center
Vesey Street, Room 350
New York, NY 10048